DYSLEXIA AND RELATED DISORDERS

Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifest by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity; and, a Related Disorder includes disorders similar to or related to dyslexia, such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.

Dyslexia and related disorders are a language and learning based disability referring to a cluster of symptoms resulting in difficulties with language skill such as spelling, writing and speaking. These cluster of symptoms are often just referred to collectively as dyslexia. The exact causes for dyslexia are not completely clear. Studies have shown there are differences in the way the brain develops and functions in those impacted. It can occur among all groups regardless of age, race, gender, or income; and, research has established that dyslexia can run in families. Dyslexia disorders are not due to either lack of intelligence or the desire to learn. With appropriate strategies students with dyslexia can learn successfully. Dyslexia is not behavioral, psychological, motivational, or social, and it is a misconception that people with dyslexia see backward. Its impact can change at different stages in a person's life.

Characteristics
An individual with dyslexia typically lacks an awareness of sounds in words, rhymes, or sequence of sounds and syllables in words. They tend to have a difficulty to accurately decode nonsense or unfamiliar words as well as difficulty in reading single words in isolation. There is generally a lack or reading fluency and the individual fails to read smoothly and at an appropriate pace. Dyslexics have a variable degree of difficulty learning the names of letters and their associated sounds, learning to spell, rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters, with phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory), with learning and reproducing the alphabet in correct sequence (in either oral or written form); and, often there is a family history of similar problems.

Assessment
Recommendation for assessment may include results of some or all of the following including teacher observations and concerns, academic progress reports, samples of school work, parent(s)/guardian(s) conferences, testing for limited English proficiency, evidence of adequate intelligence, speech and language screening through a referral process, K-2 results of Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI), district designated assessment, and current state student assessment programs.

Dyslexia program specialist
Ms. Andrea Crane, a Certified Academic Language Therapist, serves and supports Snyder ISD students districtwide as a Dyslexia Specialist. She is a proud alumna of Snyder High School, Texas Tech University, and of the Scottish Rite Dyslexia training program. Ms. Crane provides assessment and intervention for dyslexia directly, explicitly, and systematically, to teach an awareness of the sounds of language, letter-sound associations, vocabulary, and strategies for understanding written language.

Services to students with dyslexic or related disorders
Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher, tutor, or therapist trained in using a multi-sensory, structured language approach. It is important for these individuals to be taught by a method that employs all pathways of learning at the same time: seeing, hearing, touching, writing, and speaking. Many individuals with dyslexia need this type of instruction so they can move forward using explicit instruction in the decoding of written language. The letter-sound system is critical. This code must be taught bit by bit, in a sequential and cumulative way. There must be a systematic teaching of the rules governing written language.

Texas has a long history of supporting the fundamental skill of reading. This history includes a focus on early identification and intervention for children who experience reading difficulties. In support of dyslexia, the Texas Legislature has passed legislation that provides guidelines for school districts to follow as they identify and provide services for students with dyslexia and related disorders. Guidelines for the program are available in the Texas Education Agency (TEA) Dyslexia Handbook (En Español). You can also learn more about procedures, personnel, and timelines related to dyslexia activities, by viewing the Snyder ISD Special Services operating procedures for dyslexia services.

Most students with dyslexia and/or a related disorder are typically served through Section 504.

Funding
There are no federal or state monies specifically designated for the dyslexia program. The district designates funds for the program. Each campus has a budget and funds are designated for the district level.

SNYDER ISD SPECIAL SERVICES
Stanfield Special Services Building
4300 Avenue V., Snyder, TX 79549
(p) 325-574-8900 | (f) 325-574-8693